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There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique," Louis sensed that war was the ideal way to enhance his glory.
He recommended that France fight back by licensing French merchants ships to privateer and seize enemy merchant ships, while avoiding its navies:.
Louis decided to persecute Protestants and revoke the Edict of Nantes , which awarded Huguenots political and religious freedom. He saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness.
An additional factor in Louis' thinking was the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability, cuius regio, eius religio "whose realm, his religion" , the idea that the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm as originally confirmed in central Europe in the Peace of Augsburg of Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods , closed churches outside of Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration.
He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages to which third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism.
In , Louis dramatically increased his persecution of Protestants. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio generally had also meant that subjects who refused to convert could emigrate, but Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted that all Protestants must be converted.
Although this was within his legal rights, the dragonnades inflicted severe financial strain on Protestants and atrocious abuse. Between , and , Huguenots converted, as this entailed financial rewards and exemption from the dragonnades.
On 15 October , Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau , which cited the redundancy of privileges for Protestants given their scarcity after the extensive conversions.
The Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes and repealed all the privileges that arose therefrom.
No further churches were to be constructed, and those already existing were to be demolished. Pastors could choose either exile or a secular life.
Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now to be baptised forcibly into the established church.
Historians have debated Louis' reasons for issuing the Edict of Fontainebleau. He may have been seeking to placate Pope Innocent XI , with whom relations were tense and whose aid was necessary to determine the outcome of a succession crisis in the Electorate of Cologne.
He may also have acted to upstage Emperor Leopold I and regain international prestige after the latter defeated the Turks without Louis' help.
Otherwise, he may simply have desired to end the remaining divisions in French society dating to the Wars of Religion by fulfilling his coronation oath to eradicate heresy.
Many historians have condemned the Edict of Fontainebleau as gravely harmful to France. On the other hand, there are historians who view this as an exaggeration.
They argue that most of France's preeminent Protestant businessmen and industrialists converted to Catholicism and remained.
What is certain is that reaction to the Edict was mixed. Protestants across Europe were horrified at the treatment of their co-religionists, but most Catholics in France applauded the move.
Nonetheless, it is indisputable that Louis' public image in most of Europe, especially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow.
In the end, however, despite renewed tensions with the Camisards of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure that his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears.
French society would sufficiently change by the time of his descendant, Louis XVI , to welcome tolerance in the form of the Edict of Versailles , also known as the Edict of Tolerance.
This restored to non-Catholics their civil rights and the freedom to worship openly. The War of the League of Augsburg , which lasted from to , initiated a period of decline in Louis's political and diplomatic fortunes.
It arose from two events in the Rhineland. All that remained of his immediate family was Louis's sister-in-law, Elizabeth Charlotte.
German law ostensibly barred her from succeeding to her brother's lands and electoral dignity, but it was unclear enough for arguments in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte to have a chance of success.
Conversely, the princess was clearly entitled to a division of the family's personal property. Louis pressed her claims to land and chattels, hoping the latter, at least, would be given to her.
The archbishopric had traditionally been held by the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria , but the Bavarian claimant to replace Maximilian Henry, Prince Joseph Clemens of Bavaria , was at that time not more than 17 years old and not even ordained.
Louis sought instead to install his own candidate, William Egon of Fürstenberg , to ensure the key Rhenish state remained an ally.
In light of his foreign and domestic policies during the early s, which were perceived as aggressive, Louis's actions, fostered by the succession crises of the late s, created concern and alarm in much of Europe.
Their stated intention was to return France to at least the borders agreed to in the Treaty of Nijmegen. Another event Louis found threatening was England's Glorious Revolution of This seemed to herald an era of Catholic monarchs in England.
He sailed for England with troops despite Louis's warning that France would regard it as a provocation.
Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even among those closest to him, James II fled England. Parliament declared the throne vacant, and offered it to James's daughter Mary II and his son-in-law and nephew William.
Before this happened, Louis expected William's expedition to England to absorb his energies and those of his allies, so he dispatched troops to the Rhineland after the expiry of his ultimatum to the German princes requiring confirmation of the Truce of Ratisbon and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises.
This military manoeuvre was also intended to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the preemptive scorched earth policy pursued in much of southwestern Germany the "Devastation of the Palatinate".
His triumphs at the Battles of Fleurus in , Steenkerque in , and Landen in preserved northern France from invasion.
Although an attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne in , France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies.
Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in and Namur in Luxembourg gave France the defensive line of the Sambre by capturing Charleroi in France also overran most of the Duchy of Savoy after the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde in While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at the Battle of Beachy Head in and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue in , the Battle of Torroella in exposed Catalonia to French invasion, culminating in the capture of Barcelona.
Louis XIV ordered the surprise destruction of a Flemish city to divert the attention of these troops. This led to the bombardment of Brussels , in which more than 4, buildings were destroyed, including the entire city-center.
The strategy failed, as Namur fell three weeks later, but harmed Louis XIV's reputation: a century later, Napoleon deemed the bombardment "as barbarous as it was useless.
Peace was broached by Sweden in By , both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks began, but to no avail. Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rushed to the peace table, and negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick of By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power.
The treaty yielded many benefits for France. Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border as it is to this day.
However, he returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions. French military superiority might have allowed him to press for more advantageous terms.
Thus, his generosity to Spain with regard to Catalonia has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced King Charles II to name Louis's grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou , heir to the Spanish throne.
Lorraine , which had been occupied by the French since , was returned to its rightful Duke Leopold , albeit with a right of way to the French military.
The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression.
Though in some respects the Treaty of Ryswick may appear a diplomatic defeat for Louis since he failed to place client rulers in control of the Palatinate or the Electorate of Cologne, he did in fact fulfill many of the aims laid down in his ultimatum.
By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had been a source of concern to European leaders for well over forty years.
He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. The principal claimants to the throne of Spain belonged to the ruling families of France and Austria.
Based on the laws of primogeniture , France had the better claim as it originated from the eldest daughters in two generations. However, their renunciation of succession rights complicated matters.
In the case of Maria Theresa, nonetheless, the renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain's breach of her marriage contract with Louis.
This agreement divided Spain's Italian territories between Louis's son le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke Charles, with the rest of the empire awarded to Joseph Ferdinand.
William III consented to permitting the Dauphin's new territories to become part of France when the latter succeeded to his father's throne.
In , he re-confirmed his will that named Joseph Ferdinand as his sole successor. Six months later, Joseph Ferdinand died.
The Dauphin would receive all of Spain's Italian territories. On his deathbed in , Charles II unexpectedly changed his will. The clear demonstration of French military superiority for many decades before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of Spain, and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact.
He thus offered the entire empire to the Dauphin's second son Philip, Duke of Anjou, provided it remained undivided.
Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union. If the Duke of Berry declined it, it would go to the Archduke Charles, then to the distantly related House of Savoy if Charles declined it.
Louis was confronted with a difficult choice. He could agree to a partition of the Spanish possessions and avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate much of Europe.
He may initially have been inclined to abide by the partition treaties, but the Dauphin's insistence persuaded him otherwise.
He emphasised that, should it come to war, William III was unlikely to stand by France since he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty".
Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. Most European rulers accepted Philip as king, some reluctantly.
Depending on one's views of the war's inevitability, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly. Admittedly, he may only have been hypothesising a theoretical eventuality and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union.
But his actions were certainly not read as disinterested. In , Philip transferred the asiento the right to supply slaves to Spanish colonies to France, alienating English traders.
These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. Even before war was officially declared, hostilities began with Imperial aggression in Italy.
Once finally declared, the War of the Spanish Succession lasted almost until Louis's death, at great cost to him and France. The war began with French successes, but the talents of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough , and Eugene of Savoy checked these victories and broke the myth of French invincibility.
The duo allowed the Palatinate and Austria to occupy Bavaria after their victory at the Battle of Blenheim. The impact of this victory won the support of Portugal and Savoy.
Marlborough and Eugene met again at the Battle of Oudenarde , which enabled them to invade France. Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France.
Between and , over two million people died in two famines, made worse as foraging armies seized food supplies from the villages. By the winter of —09, he was willing to accept peace at nearly any cost.
He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the territories he had acquired over 60 years.
But he could promise that Philip V would accept these terms, so the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his grandson to force these terms on him.
If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume. Louis could not accept these terms. The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for Philip V.
The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in French forces elsewhere remained obdurate despite their defeats.
The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21, casualties, twice that of the French.
French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria.
In , the Emperor Leopold I died. His elder son and successor, Joseph I , followed him in His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings.
If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V 's in the 16th century.
To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union.
Britain kept Gibraltar and Menorca. Britain gained the most from the treaty, but the final terms were much more favourable to France than those being discussed in peace negotiations in and Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their prewar status and returned their lands.
Louis and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain had six children from the marriage contracted for them in However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin , known as Monseigneur.
Maria Theresa died in , whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion. Despite evidence of affection early on in their marriage, Louis was never faithful to Maria Theresa.
He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial. Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.
He first met her through her work caring for his children by Madame de Montespan, noting the care she gave to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine.
Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Gallican Church.
He made his devotions daily regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly. Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles.
Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of daily Mass, annual celebrations, such as those of Holy Week , and special ceremonies. Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him.
Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning artists such as Charles Le Brun , Pierre Mignard , Antoine Coysevox , and Hyacinthe Rigaud , whose works became famous throughout Europe.
With the exception of the current Royal Chapel built near the end of his reign , the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries.
At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat.
The memoirist Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.
While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, the Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment.
The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in also induced Louis to demolish Paris's northern walls in and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.
Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and other royal residences. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre; however, his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris.
With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public. Few rulers in world history have commemorated themselves in as grand a manner as Louis.
With his support, Colbert established from the beginning of Louis' personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for creating and perpetuating the royal image.
The King was thus portrayed largely in majesty or at war, notably against Spain. This portrayal of the monarch was to be found in numerous media of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, music, and the almanacs that diffused royal propaganda to the population at large.
Over his lifetime, Louis commissioned numerous works of art to portray himself, among them over formal portraits.
The earliest portrayals of Louis already followed the pictorial conventions of the day in depicting the child king as the majestically royal incarnation of France.
This idealisation of the monarch continued in later works, which avoided depictions of the effect of the smallpox that Louis contracted in In the s, Louis began to be shown as a Roman emperor, the god Apollo , or Alexander the Great , as can be seen in many works of Charles Le Brun , such as sculpture, paintings, and the decor of major monuments.
The depiction of the king in this manner focused on allegorical or mythological attributes, instead of attempting to produce a true likeness.
As Louis aged, so too did the manner in which he was depicted. Nonetheless, there was still a disparity between realistic representation and the demands of royal propaganda.
There is no better illustration of this than in Hyacinthe Rigaud 's frequently-reproduced Portrait of Louis XIV of , in which a year-old Louis appears to stand on a set of unnaturally young legs.
Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture during Louis' reign. Although Rigaud crafted a credible likeness of Louis, the portrait was neither meant as an exercise in realism nor to explore Louis' personal character.
Certainly, Rigaud was concerned with detail and depicted the king's costume with great precision, down to his shoe buckle.
However, Rigaud's intention was to glorify the monarchy. Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre , was originally meant as a gift to Louis' grandson, Philip V of Spain.
However, Louis was so pleased with the work that he kept the original and commissioned a copy to be sent to his grandson. That became the first of many copies, both in full and half-length formats, to be made by Rigaud, often with the help of his assistants.
The portrait also became a model for French royal and imperial portraiture down to the time of Charles X over a century later.
In his work, Rigaud proclaims Louis' exalted royal status through his elegant stance and haughty expression, the royal regalia and throne, rich ceremonial fleur-de-lys robes, as well as the upright column in the background, which, together with the draperies, serves to frame this image of majesty.
In addition to portraits, Louis commissioned at least 20 statues of himself in the s, to stand in Paris and provincial towns as physical manifestations of his rule.
He also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaigns to document his military triumphs. To remind the people of these triumphs, Louis erected permanent triumphal arches in Paris and the provinces for the first time since the decline of the Roman Empire.
Louis' reign marked the birth and infancy of the art of medallions. Sixteenth-century rulers had often issued medals in small numbers to commemorate the major events of their reigns.
Louis, however, struck more than to celebrate the story of the king in bronze, that were enshrined in thousands of households throughout France. He also used tapestries as a medium of exalting the monarchy.
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Selected filters. Updating list Reviewed December 21, via mobile Best chips ever. Date of visit: December Reviewed April 16, Meat Here!!
Date of visit: April Omar J. Verstehen Sie es bitte nicht als Spleen, sondern als Zeichen unserer Wertschätzung Ihnen gegenüber als unseren Gast, wenn wir schlaflose Nächte wegen der Auswahl der Badezimmerfliesen haben.
Oder wenn wir wochenlang darüber streiten, welche Gurken wir für unseren Akori Gin Tonic verwenden sollen. Wir haben uns übrigens auf Asaduke Gurken geeinigt!
Wenn sich Gegensätze zu einem harmonischen Ganzen fügen, dann entsteht etwas Seltenes. Im Louis Hotel verbindet sich der mondäne Chique von Paris mit hochwertigsten Grillaromen aus der ganzen Welt und der vitalen Ursprünglichkeit des Münchner Viktualienmarktes — und das mit — oder wegen — dieser ungezwungenen Gelassenheit, die überall in diesem Hause spürbar ist.
Es ist eine frei gestaltende und gleichzeitig legere Haltung, die so anregend und wohltuend wirkt, wenn man hier zu Gast ist.
Mit einem stilsicheren Blick, geschulter Hand und viel Fingerspitzengefühl sind hier Zimmer entstanden, die dieses besondere Louis Lebensgefühl vermitteln.Bearbeitungsstand der Speisekarte von King Loui ist der Der gleiche Laden irgendwo in einer "unfancy" Gegend mit normalen Burgernamen würde schnell dicht machen. Was Bedeutet Deaktiviert Medien.